Essay using chicago style footnotes

Bibliographic and notation entries should be single spaced internally, but contain a space between each entry.


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  • How to use footnotes and endnotes!
  • Citing and referencing: Chicago 16th.
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  • Formatting Papers in Chicago Style.

Page numbers should be placed in the header of the first page of text, beginning with number 1. Continue your page numbers till the end of your bibliography. Longer publications should use Subheadings. If your paper has a subtitle, end the title line with a colon and place the subtitle on the next line.

Center your name directly under the title.


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  • Chicago Style Citation Guide: Sample Papers?
  • Footnotes / Endnotes sample papers.

Do not bold, underline, or otherwise decorate your title. Do not put a page number on your cover page and do not include it in your page count total. Names and Numbers Use the full name of any person or agency the first time you reference them in a paper.

Documentation & Plagiarism

For agencies, include the acronym in parentheses after the full name when first used, e. Write out any numbers lower than Place the note number at the end of the sentence in which the reference occurs and after any punctuation; remember to superscript it. Times New Roman font.

Do not embolden the title. Richardson argues, refers to, explains, hypothesizes, compares, concludes; As Littlewood and Sherwin demonstrated, proved , You are responsible for the accuracy of all information in your notes and bibliography To cite a source, a small superscript raised number is placed after each in-text reference.

What Are Footnotes and How Do You Use Them?

Throughout the paper, these in-text references are numbered in sequential order For example:. Mooney found that "domestic violence has, since the s, been increasingly recognized as a social problem.

Each numbered reference then corresponds to a numbered citation in the footnote or endnote that provides author, date, and publication information for each source The numbers in the notes are full size, not raised, and followed by a period. Citations in notes are single-spaced unless otherwise instructed , but there is a double space between entries. The first line is indented.

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Chicago 16th - Citing and referencing - Library guides at Monash University

Subsequent notes for sources that have already been cited may be shortened to the author's last name, abbreviated title, and the appropriate page reference The list of sources at the end of the paper or at the end of the chapter is called the bibliography. This list must include all references cited in the text of your paper Table of contents Chicago website citation Chicago book citation Chicago news article citation Chicago journal article citation Chicago social media citation YouTube example.

If it is available, the date of the latest update is preferred over the date of publication, as the date of latest update provides an indication as to how current the information is. Note that these examples are all for sources either with one author or published by a collective group or organization.

Adding a Citation to a Footnote or Endnote

We have also written an article about citing a source with multiple authors. Have a language expert improve your writing. Check your paper for plagiarism in 10 minutes. Generate your APA citations for free! Chicago style citation examples Date published July 25, by Courtney Gahan. Is this article helpful? She has worked as a freelance writer and editor since , and joined the Scribbr team as an editor in June She loves helping students and academics all over the world improve their writing and learning about their research while doing so!

Chicago Style Guide

Other students also liked. This guide cover both citing systems and provides citation examples for websites, books and …. How to use footnotes and endnotes Footnotes can be a form of citation or can provide additional information. Read how to insert and format footnotes in Word. How to quote sources When you quote a source, you have to intoduce the quote, enclose the quote in quotation marks, and correctly cite the original author s.